by Glen C. Strathy*
To sell your novel, you may need to know how to write a synopsis, even if you are a pantser-type novelist who can write a whole novel without making an outline first. Agents and publishers will often ask for a synopsis along with sample chapters before they request a complete manuscript.
The biggest mistake most people make when they try to write a synopsis for the first time is to create a bare bones plot summary, along the lines of “First this happens, then this happens, then this happens...” Synopses written this way tend to be so dry and boring even the author would have trouble understanding why anyone would want to read the full novel.
Imagine, for example, if a sports writer described a hockey game as “First one team scored. Then the other team scored. Then the first team scored twice. Then the game ended.” Pretty boring, yes?
What makes a hockey game or a novel mesmerizing is not a step-by-step description of what happens, but the emotions that accompany the actions, the anticipation, fear, hope, excitement, and disappointment at each turn of events. The elation of victory at the end, or the agony of defeat. It is the emotional twists and turns that make a novel or a hockey game appealing. Just as a good sports writer can describe a game in terms that capture the emotions, the secret of how to write a synopsis is to incorporate the emotional twists and turns of your characters – especially your main character – at the same time as you describe your sequence of plot events.
If you used Dramatica theory to create an outline for your novel before you started writing, writing a synopsis for your finished novel should be an easy task. Most of the work has already been done. It is simply a matter of taking the major story points and editing them into something resembling a short story (albeit without dialogue or description).
If you didn't work from an outline, creating a synopsis will take a little more work. However, writing a synopsis can have additional benefits. It can be an opportunity to discover any remaining weaknesses in your story before you submit it to an agent or editor.
While one should not be too formulaic, here's how to write a synopsis that addresses both the plot and the emotional sides of your story...
You know that your plot is a sequence of events that proceed through several basic stages. These include...
The emotional side of the story will be expressed in part by the main character's progression through four stages as well. For instance, see if you can answer the following questions...
The impact character (or sometimes characters) are responsible for pressuring the main character to change, generally by giving an example of a diametrically different approach or outlook. He or she shows why and how the main character might need to change. So consider ...
Another aspect to a well-rounded story is the progression of the relationship between the main and impact characters. For instance, in a romance these two are usually the romantic hero and heroine. In a comic book adventure, they could be the hero and villain, hero and mentor, etc. Regardless who these two characters are to each other, the relationship between them will also exhibit an emotional arc. You may need to consider...
As you can probably guess, all of the “#1”s from each of the steps above will go into the first part of your synopsis. All the “#2”s will go into the second part, etc. You may find it useful to write each point on an index card or piece of paper. Then you can sort them into four piles representing the order they will appear in your synopsis.
What issues do your characters struggle with in your novel? What themes will be addressed and weighed in the story? What is the message or moral? If these points are a crucial part of your novel, write them on index cards and put them into the appropriate pile, depending on where they are illustrated in your story.
Review the article,
How to Create a Plot Outline in 8 Easy Steps.
Write an index card for each of the 8 basic plot elements, describing how it is illustrated in your novel. Once again, put each card into the appropriate pile, according to where the illustration appears in the story.
By now you have a set of over 24 index cards, each describing an element of your novel. The cards are in four piles, representing the four acts of your story. Your final step is to arrange the cards in order within each pile and write/edit them together to create a summary of your story. If you have included all of these elements, you should find that your synopsis covers not only the events that make up the plot but also the emotional side of your novel.
What else do editors want to learn from your synopsis? It also helps to show them in the first paragraph or so that...
Finally, your synopsis as a whole should show...
* based in part on Dramatica theory created by Melanie Anne Phillips and Chris Huntley.
Now that you know how to write a synopsis of your novel, you may want to create the next tool, a Query Letter, or click here for more advice on Getting Published.
Follow Glen on Twitter...
If the information on this site helps you, consider giving a few dollars in return...
"I am so glad I found your site. It has helped me in so many ways, and has given me more confidence about myself and my work. Thank you for making this valuable resource, for me and my fellow writers. Perhaps you'll hear about me someday...I'll owe it to you." - Ruth, Milton, U.S.A.
"Thanks to your "Create a Plot Outline in 8 Easy Steps," I was able to take a story that I simply just fooled around with and went willy nilly all over, into a clearly defined, intriguing battle where two characters fight to keep their relationship intact, and try to find a balance in control of themselves and their lives. Thanks to you, I'm not ashamed of the poor organization of my writing." - Nommanic Ragus
"I never knew what to do with all the characters in my head, but since discovering Dramatica I am writing again in my spare time. Thank you for making this available. Yes, it is a bit complex, and it does take time, but I love it because it works." - Colin Shoeman
"I came across your website by chance. It is a plethora of
knowledge, written in a simplistic way to help aspiring writers. I
truly appreciate all of the information you have provided to help me
successfully (relative term) write my novel. Thank you very much!" - Leo T. Rollins
"I can honestly say that this is the first website that is really helpful. You manage to answer complex questions in relatively short articles and with really intelligent answers. Thank you for taking the time to write these articles and sharing them so generously." - Chrystelle Nash